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Homeland Security
NIMS
Primary Function
Components
Serves as a national approach to incident management
ICS
Applicable across a full spectrum of potential incidents and hazards
Multi-agency coordination system
Improve coordination between state and federal branches
Public information Systems
Provide a common standard
The role of the NIMS in serving as a “national approach to incident management” helps responders in accomplishing their task effectively as it ensures that the while country and its resources are involved in managing a disaster, rather than only the state or a part of the country. This ensures a wide response, and the ability to mobilize personnel across the board.
The most difficult part of the system is the idea of multi-agency coordination where it is difficult to ensure compliance and standard operating procedures, and most importantly, a single unified chain of command. Through the ability of the agencies to create a position that can be filled by a person from any one of the organizations, the problem can be resolved.
ICS
Primary Function
Components
On scene incident management concept
Independent planning unhindered by jurisdictional boundaries
Integrated organizational structure
Common set of operating principles
Promotes uniformity of practice, multiagency coordination, public information system
The idea of on scene incident management is its strongest attribute for it creates a situation where responders and officers can arrive on scene and work in a way that is tailored to suit the particular incident. In spite of standard operating procedures, it ensures response based upon specific needs.
The common set of operating principles can be difficult in managing situations that are different from the case given. Because it relies on a common set, this can lead to confusion and delay in addressing situations that are not part of the common set and creating clear and specific instructions for various kinds of events, the problem can be resolved.
NRF
Primary Function
Components
a single, comprehensive approach to domestic incident management
Public sector
to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies
Private sector including NGOs
provides the structure and mechanisms for national-level policy and operational direction for domestic incident management
The inclusion of private sector and NGOs in disaster management strengthens the ability of the NRF to address incidents and events in cooperation with all stakeholders. It also allows government agencies to make use of the financial, human and other resources available to these organizations, who are trained to participate in amelioration of tragedy.
By clubbing together approaches to domestic incidents under a single umbrella, it fails to address the specificities that are part of different types of incidents, especially in cases that involve terror and natural disasters. By creating specific standard operating procedures, the errors can be minimized.
References
NIMS: Frequently Asked Questions. U. S. Department of Homeland Security.
National Response Framework. Fourth Edition. (2019). U. S. Department of Homeland
Security.

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