1)      C.M            Re: Topic 4 DQ 1

Hello class and prof.,

Within south Africa nearly one in three citizens will accumulate a mental health disorder in his or her lifetime. There are multiple ways that mental health is measured within south Africa one being surveying hospital-based mental health services. Indicators were enforced along with a questionnaire sent out to mental health coordinators to learn more about how many staff members are present along with how many patients are being treated and overall, how the mental health policies are doing. The outcome for this was that for the public sector there were 25% staff with service utilization being 66%. This is a great way to know how many health providers there are within the public sector and how many people they are able to treat. It also shows that there is an over dependence people have towards hospital-based mental health services, and many are getting unmet needs. There is a large issue involving mental health services within south Africa due to the lack of services along with lack of health providers. There is another sector within south Africa known as private health care where those who can afford it will get the best health care within the country. This is also an issue for those who cannot afford private health care they fall under the public sector receiving very poor quality health care.


AJ;, L. C. F. (n.d.). Community/hospital indicators in South African public Sector mental health services. The journal of mental health policy and economics. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14713725/.

2)  L.D        Re: Topic 4 DQ 1


According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “without mental health, there can be no physical health”. Mental health is defined as the state of well-being which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal life stressors, and is able to contribute to their community, by working fruitfully and productively (DiPrete, 2018). It is estimated that in any given year, 1 in 5 people in Canada will experience a mental health problem or illness. The economic cost of mental illness was estimated to be $79.9 billion for the year 2021 to the Canadian health care (CMHA, 2021). Back in 2013, there was no positive mental health surveillance system, to address this gap, Canada developed a framework of indicators (Orpana et al., 2016). The burden of mental illness in Ontario Canada, is 1.5 times higher than all types of cancers put together and more than 7 times of all infectious diseases (CAMH, 2021).


CAMH. (2021). Mental Illness and Addiction: Facts and Statistics. Retrieved from: https://www.camh.ca/en/driving-change/the-crisis-is-real/mental-health-statistics

DiPrete, L. (2018). Foundations for Global Health Practice. Retrieve from: https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/wiley-and-sons/2018/foundations-for-global-health-practice_1e.php

3)  M.G        Re: Topic 4 DQ 1

According to the World Health Organization, the two most prevalent mental health disorders in China are depression and anxiety, with an estimated 54 million people suffering from depression and, 41 million suffering from anxiety disorders. This does not conceal that an individual may suffer from other mental disorders such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and other developing disorders. In 2013, China implemented the first mental health law known as Mental Health Law of the People’s Republic of China. This mental health law sets “prevention” as its guiding principle and adheres to the concept of integrating prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. Under government leadership, this law holds, the employer, employee, and family accountable for the psychological well-being of an individual (Shao, et al., 2015). Furthermore, China’s mental health law calls for more facilities to support mental health patients, more mental health professionals on staff, and raise awareness (WHO, 2021). By 2030, the goal of China is to have more than 75% of patients suffering from a mental health disorder, to have access to treatment and at least 80% of primary and secondary schools to staff mental health personnel by 2022 (WHO, 2021).

In light of the current pandemic, China’s Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council (COVID -19 response team), published a national guidance on mental health intervention. Their aim is to help individual’s cope with the widespread mental health needs arising from the pandemic. This guidance outlined the roles and responsibilities of local governments, mental health professionals, social workers, and others, focusing on providing health education, psychological crisis intervention, consultation-liaison psychiatry services for both healthcare workers and patients (Ju, et al., 2020). With the guidance in effect, there is still much improvement on China’s overall mental health policies, taking this outbreak as a lesson of reflection on how China can make mental health a priority.

                                                                                    Cite Reference

Ju, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, X. et al. China’s mental health support in response to COVID-19: progression, challenges and reflection. Global Health 16, 102 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-00634-8

Shao, Y., Wang, J., & Xie, B. (2015). The first mental health law of China. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 13, 72–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2014.11.002

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5)     L.D           Re: Topic 4 DQ 2


South Korea is home to more alcoholics than any country, and it costs more than $20 billion a year. On average, South Koreans consume around 14 shots, while Americans drink around 3 and Russians around 6 (Chao & Gooch, 2016). The annual cost of alcohol is related harm is around 23.4 trillion won, which is around $21 billion, this does not include the $8.8 trillion that is caused by alcohol-related violence and crime (Lee, 2006). The Narcotics Policy Division of the Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) states that any narcotic medication including CBD oil, is strictly prohibited into Korea, even with a doctor’s prescription (U.S. Embassy, 2021). For medications that do not contain narcotics or amphetamines, up to 6 bottles of medication be permitted into Korea and will only be allowed for personal, not for resale. South Korea is known for strictly enforcing drug laws, there are 23,000 college students in Canada, where marijuana use is legal (Haas, 2018). But under Korean law, even if Koreans use marijuana in countries where it is legal, they will still be punished no exception (Haas, 2018).


Chao, S. Gooch, L. (2016). The country with the world’s worse drinking problem. Retrieved from: https://www.aljazeera.com/features/2016/2/7/the-country-with-the-worlds-worst-drink-problem

6)      C.M     Re: Topic 4 DQ 2

Hello class and prof.,

Substance abuse is a global issue that affects people mentally, physically, along with their social well-being. Within the non-western culture of China there is a massive selection of people who are involved in substance and drug abuse. In the 1980’s, there was a reemergence of drug abuse that involved different methods of trafficking as well (A people s war chinas a people’s war). Currently, young people are the main audience of drug abuse and many use technology to facilitate trafficking of drugs. The Chinese government launches national campaigns each year against drug abuse around June 26th which can help spread the word about drugs along with how harmful they are. In 2016, China’s National Narcotics Control Commissions stated that there are 2.51 million drug abusers in China but could also be much higher around 30.5 million users (Ducharme, 2019). Many areas in the world are at a constant battle with drug abusers along with how to lean them off the drugs and keep them stable. Many drug abusers are killing their bodies and are more prone to seizures.



A people s war china s a people’s war: China’s struggle to … (n.d.). https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/A-Peoples-War-final.pdf.

aInstitute of Mental Health/Peking University Sixth Hospital bNational Institute on Drug Dependence. (n.d.). The new pattern of drug abuse in China : Current opinion in psychiatry. LWW. https://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Abstract/2014/07000/The_new_pattern_of_drug_abuse_in_China.3.aspx.

Ducharme, J. (2019, February 15). Trump said China doesn’t have a drug Problem. is that true? Time.

7)   M.G       Re: Topic 4 DQ 2

Substance abuse occurs when a person uses drugs or alcohol despite negative consequences in their lives. Any legal or illegal substance can lead to substance abuse. Within the last 30 years, India has suffered an increase in substance use, showing a prevalence rate from 2 million to 22 million engaged in Opioid use (Avassthi & Ghosh, 2019).

With India as the biggest supplier, tramadol, a less potent form of fentanyl, has cause an opioid crisis in the Middle East and Africa. More importantly, it is a growing addiction issue in India. Major laws that control the country’s pharmaceuticals such as the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act of 1985 and the Prevention of Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act of 1988, these laws include an automatic 10-year mandatory minimum prison sentence for violations involving the possession and distribution of narcotic drugs (Hilliard, 2019). India is the largest legal producer of opium, making India vulnerable for being both a destination and transit route for opioids (Ambekar, et al., 2018). It is estimated that currently, 4 million people use opioids, with 1 million people who are opioid dependent (Ambekar, et al., 2018).

People suffering from chronic to terminal diseases use opioids for pain relief, however, only a small percentage have access to them. India grows poppy under the license in the three Northern states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan, however, the people of India do not have access to it for medical use, rather, have access to a scarce amount of morphine for domestic medical use (Rajagopal, et al., 2007). The government of India did not want to make these types of drugs legal for pain management for fear of drug addiction (Hilliard, 2019). However, in 2014, an amendment to the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, called for the legalization of pain management drugs such as morphine, fentanyl, methadone, oxycodone, codeine, and hydrocodone (Hilliard, 2019). This helped many people of India, who were suffering from severe chronic pain, not aware that making it valid in India, would lead to substance abuse and misuse later.

Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is one of the most evidence-based treatment for opioid dependence, using buprenorphine and methadone as the agents (Ambekar, et al., 2018). Initially, buprenorphine was used for patients with heroin dependence. After treatment with buprenorphine and psychosocial interventions, 70% of the patients reported little to no heroin use. When methadone was available for legal use in India for chronic pain, it was used as part of OST for those suffering from addiction. Results in OST showed a significant reduction in drug use, with 80% of opioid-dependent patients on methadone, reporting abstinence from other opioids at a 3-month follow-up (Ambekar, et al., 2018).

                                                                  Cite Reference

Avasthi, A., & Ghosh, A. (2019). Drug misuse in India: Where do we stand & where to go from here? The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 149(6), 689–692. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_548_19

Ambekar, A., Rao, R., Agrawal, A., & Kathiresan, P. (2018). Research on opioid substitution therapy in India: A brief, narrative review. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 60(3), 265–270. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_385_18

Hilliard, Jena. (2019). The role of American pharmaceutical companies in the emerging Indian Opioid Crisis. Addiction Center. https://www.addictioncenter.com/news/2019/09/american-companies-india-opioid/

Rajagopal, M.R., MD, Joranson, David E., (2007). India: opioid availability – an update. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Vol. 33, Issue 5, 615-622. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2007.02.028

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