Respond to peer discussion:    

Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum three paragraphs per DQ, with a minimum of three sentences each paragraph.

·      All respond discussions comments submitted must be in APA format according to Publication Manual American Psychological Association (APA) (7th ed.)

·      Minimum of two references, not older than 2015.

Yirlem Discussion:

QD1 …Name five continuous, five discrete, and five categorical variables. Which ones are you going to use in your practicum?

Variables in Clinical Practicum

Research is a cornerstone aspect of any clinical practice, especially in nursing. It leads to the evolution of treatment and intervention approaches and the discovery of new strains of infections. Research has also proved crucial in the prolonged monitoring of how human specimen reacts with treatment, leading to a broad body of literature in clinical practice. Variables are at the core of every research work, and they come in different forms. Variables are phenomena or characteristics that assume a different value, and the research tries to measure their significance (Shukla). Common variables in the nursing practicum include continuous, discrete and categorical variables, with these influential groups having smaller subgroups. The desired outcome of the research influences the choice of the variable, the research problem, and the study’s limitations.Continuous variables in clinical practicum are variables whose exact values can be accurately determined through measurements such as height, temperature, blood pressure, length of the arm, and glucose levels in the body. The values of discrete variables can be determined through counting, such as number of patients, hospital visits in a month, number of members in a family, number of hospital admissions and number of available beds in the award. Categorical variables are purely qualitative and can be put into convenient groups.). Categorical variables in the clinical practicum include the age of persons, ethnicity, sex, and marital status, level of education, age cohort, and religion and natural color of hair.

Works Cited

Ranganathan, Priya, and Rakesh Aggarwal. “Study Designs: Part 1 – An Overview and Classification.” PubMed Central (PMC), Oct. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6176693/

Shukla, Satishprakash. “(PDF) VARIABLES, HYPOTHESES AND STAGES OF RESEARCH 1.” Research Gate, 14 May 2018www.researchgate.net/publication/325127119_VARIABLES_HYPOTHESES_AND_STAGES_OF_RESEARCH_1

Yirlem Discussion: QD2.. An adult patient with a chronic myelogenous leukemia sits down with you to discuss his questions and concerns about his upcoming bone marrow transplant. He has already received some educational materials and participated in a family conference during which health team members described the procedure and potential complications. He has been told that he has a risk of graft rejection or graft versus host disease (GVHD), but he does not understand the distinction.

a. What are the similarities between graft versus host disease and graft rejection?

b. What are the pathophysiologic differences between graft versus host disease and graft rejection?

c. How would these differences be manifested clinically?

Studies have shown a protective effect of mild to moderate GVHD in cancer patients who have had a bone marrow transplant. Based on your understanding, can you explain these findings?

In patients with failing tissues or organs, medical practice depends on transplantation as a critical resource that has the potential to save lives. Transplanted tissues and organs are allogenic when sourced from organs from donors with non-identical recipients. Additionally, immune responses targeted at foreign tissues result in distinct complications after transplantations.

However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) transplantation occurs after graft transplantation of expansive immune cells from donors, particularly after bone marrow transplant . Notably, graft rejection is associated with immune reactivity against relocated organs. Although GVHD is activated following the reactivity of immune cells among patients with allogeneic tissues. 

The recognition of the alloreactive T-cell antigen is divided based on whether the MHC presenting molecule is mismatched or matched. The T-cells precursor frequency, for reasons not yet clarified, can identify mismatched MHC molecules. Among humans, MHC is controlled by the HLA antigens, which are controlled by the MHC gene complex on chromosome 6’s short arm. However, its expressions can be through multiple body cells. The rate of GVHD is related directly to the level of the MHC mismatch. The HLA mismatch in cord blood transplant is more complex to assess than unrelated HSCT due to allele-level typing. 

References

In McLean, S. (2017). Genetics and gene therapy. Routledge.

Templeton, N. S. (2015). Gene and cell therapy: Therapeutic mechanisms and strategies. CRC

Press.



Source link