Answer the following questions 

CH3

1) How might different ethical philosophies influence how mangers make decisions when it comes to the offshoring of jobs?

3) In recent years, rules have tightened such that those who work for the U.S. Government in trade negotiations are now restricted from working with lobbyist for foreign firms. Is this a good idea? why or why not?

CH4

3) What are the four major dimensions of culture studies by Geert Hofstede? Identify and describe each. What is the cultural profile of the United States? Of Asian countries? Of Latin American countries? Of Latin European countries? Based on your comparison of these four profiles, what conclusions can you draw regarding cultural challenges facing individuals in one group when they interact with individuals in one of the other groups? Why do you think half the ad is the fifth dimension of time orientation and the sixth dimension related to indulgence versus restraint?

4) As people engage in more international travel and become more familiar with other countries, will cultural differences decline as a roadblock to international understanding, or will they continue to be a major barrier? Defend your answer. 

Respond to the following passages.

Passage 1

Chapter 3

3. In recent years, rules have tightened such that those who work for the U.S. government in trade negotiations are now restricted from working for lobbyists for foreign firms. Is this a good idea? Why or why not?

Yes, this restriction is a good idea. This restriction reduces bias and insider information from being spread from the U.S. government to foreign firms. It keeps the integrity of foreign policies and plans intact. 

5. Why are MNCs getting involved in corporate social responsibility and sustainable business practice? Are they displaying a sense of corporate social responsibility, or is it merely a matter of good business, or both? Defend your answer. 

They are getting involved in corporate social responsibility and sustainable business practice because civil society and nongovernmental organizations has been putting pressure on MNCs to be more involved. MNCs are displaying a sense of corporate social responsibility and good business practices. In order for MNCs to do good business, they need to make some of the people around them happy. In this case that means that MNCs should find ways to be more socially responsible and sustainable.

Chapter 4

4. As people engage in more international travel and become more familiar with other countries, will cultural differences decline as a roadblock to international understanding, or will they continue to be a major barrier? Defend your answer.

Cultural differences will decline as a roadblock to international understanding as people become more familiar with other countries. The textbook gives the example that a partner at a private banking firm in New York traveled to China for business. When the partner got to the meeting full of Chinese VIP’s, he messed up the order of last names and called the men “Mr. Ed and Mr. Charlie” instead of “Mr. Hao and Mr. Chee.” Next time this partner is in China he will not make the same mistake. 

7. In what way is time a cultural factor? In what ways is the need to control the environment a cultural factor? Give an example for each. 

Time is a cultural factor because different societies view time differently. There are long term orientated and short term oriented societies. For example, China is a long term oriented country. This means that Chinese people are prone to be “persistent, thrifty with their money, and highly adaptable to unexpected circumstances.” Short term oriented countries, however, “focus more on the past and present rather than the future.” The need to control the environment is also a cultural factor because it shows restraint and other countries indulge or overindulge on a daily basis. For example, a restrictive country such as Egypt has fewer happy people than an indulgent country such as the United States or Australia. 

Passage 2

Veronica McCulloch Week Two: Review and Discussion Chapters 3 & 4COLLAPSE

Chapter 3

1. How might different ethical philosophies influence how managers make decisions when it comes to the offshoring of jobs?

The ethical behavior of business is crucial when conducting business worldwide. Various theories and philosophies have been evolving throughout the years; therefore, these ethical philosophies have influenced the decisions of international managers. According to Kantian ethics, managers would make decisions based on principles that validate them against some core tenets such as corporate ethics policy and code of conduct. In Western countries, the utilitarian approach is most favorable for business because its logic is similar to economic calculation; managers evaluate their decisions based on cost-benefit analysis. If the benefits outweigh the costs, then the outcome is worth it. The Aristotelian virtue ethics theory influences managerial decisions by how the decisions affect the community. Lastly, Eastern philosophy can comprise of the various philosophies from Asia, India, and Iran. This theory is based on the idea that people are intrinsic and are integrated members of the universe. International management may incorporate this theory when decisions involving ethics or morality are involved.

3. In recent years, rules have tightened such that those who work for the U.S. government in trade negotiations are now restricted from working for lobbyists for foreign firms. Is this a good idea? Why or Why not?

It is fair to say that it is a good idea that U.S government officials who work in trade negotiations have been restricted from lobbying for foreign firms. As lobbyists are employed and receive payment from the organization they are hired to represent; their job is to influence political decisions in their organization’s favor. The general presumption is that there is a  conflict of interest, and such interactions could have an unhealthy effect on the home economy. 

Chapter 4

2. What is meant by the term “values”? Are cultural values the same worldwide. or are there marked differences? Are these values changing over time, or are they fairly constant? How does your answer relate to the role of values in a culture? 

The term values relate to the fundamental beliefs that guide or motivate the actions of a human being. Values define the intention of a human being behind their actions. They are the fundamental beliefs one has between what is right or wrong, good or bad, and important or unimportant. As there are numerous cultures worldwide, so can cultural values vary. For example, in the United States, a firm handshake and introducing oneself is the norm. In contrast, only those of the same gender shake hands in Morocco, and the handshake is gentle. From the outside, a group’s cultural values can be difficult to understand. For members inside the group, cultural values are the core principles and paragons upon which the entire community exists. Personal values emerge from the culture the individual has been brought into since birth. Therefore, it can be challenging to change personal values; however, managerial values have started to change within organizations due to increased exposure through technology and working with other cultures. 

6. How did GLOBE build on and extend Hofstede’s analysis? What unique contributiions are assoiciated with project GLOBE?

The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) research program extended and integrated earlier analysis of cultural attributes and variables as they relate to managerial leadership and practice using data collected from middle managers in over 900 countries. The principal goal of this project was to develop a theory that defines, interprets, and predicts the impact of cultural dimensions within organizations and leadership. GLOBE expanded on Hofstede’s list of the primary cultural dimensions as nine cultural dimensions: uncertainty avoidance, power distance, collectivism l , collectivism ll, gender egalitarianism, and assertiveness. Research revealed how each culture develops its own culturally-based leadership theory, which may call for adaptation and flexibility in a leader’s approach to conducting business over international borders. For the most part, the GLOBE study supported Hofstede’s initial results and those of Trompenaars.