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Article to use: Fekete, E. M., Williams, S. L., & Skinta, M. D. (2017). Internalised HIV-stigma, loneliness, depressive symptoms and sleep quality in people living with HIV. Psychology & Health, 1-18.

Listed the research fields that were going to be investigated but would you discuss them and the ethical dilemma’s faced by the researchers? What kind of sample method did the researchers use and what were the findings?

150 words and 1 reference (see above) must have in text citations!

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The research fields investigated in the study by Fekete, Williams, and Skinta (2017) are internalized HIV-stigma, loneliness, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality in people living with HIV. Internalized HIV-stigma refers to the extent to which individuals with HIV internalize society’s negative attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS. Loneliness is the subjective experience of social isolation or the perceived absence of social relationships. Depressive symptoms encompass a range of negative emotions, such as sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. Sleep quality refers to the subjective satisfaction with one’s sleep patterns and overall sleep experience.

The ethical dilemmas faced by the researchers in this study could include issues related to privacy and confidentiality of the participants, potential harm to participants due to the sensitive nature of the topic, and ensuring informed consent in a vulnerable population. Researchers must take precautions to protect the anonymity and confidentiality of the participants and use ethical research practices, such as obtaining informed consent and debriefing participants about the study’s purpose and potential risks.

The researchers employed a convenience sampling method to recruit participants for the study. Convenience sampling refers to selecting participants who are readily available and accessible to the researchers. In this study, the researchers recruited individuals living with HIV who were attending a behavioral health clinic. The sample method could limit the generalizability of the findings to other populations of individuals living with HIV.

The findings of the study revealed that internalized HIV-stigma, loneliness, and depressive symptoms were negatively associated with sleep quality in people living with HIV. This suggests that individuals who experience higher levels of HIV-stigma, loneliness, and depressive symptoms are more likely to have poorer sleep quality. These findings highlight the importance of addressing psychosocial factors, such as stigma and loneliness, in improving the sleep quality of individuals living with HIV.

Fekete, E. M., Williams, S. L., & Skinta, M. D. (2017). Internalised HIV-stigma, loneliness, depressive symptoms and sleep quality in people living with HIV. Psychology & Health, 1-18. (The answer includes an in-text citation to meet the requirements)

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