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Data sheets are to be submitted

Part A – Data Collection
The data sheets are to be submitted as part of the case study.
1. Data Collection Sheets
There are two data collection sheets in this assignment. Both data sheets must be
filled out.
The data in Data Collection Sheets 1 and 2 is to be based on your own experience of
address terms.
2. Range of data
In any data collection exercise concerning social variation, it is important to have as
well balanced a survey sample as possible. There are three major social variables
that affect nearly all studies of variation – age, gender, and social status. In order to
draw valid conclusions, any data collection must involve reasonably balanced
numbers for a range of ages, genders, and statuses.
LING1111 Introduction to Linguistics (1) case study

Given the limited size of this data collection exercise, there is no requirement for
balance in relation to status. The data collection exercise has a balance in gender,
and some balance for age.
In filling out Data Sheet 1, you need to record the address terms you would use to
one female in the age group 10-15; to one male in the age group 10-15; and so on.
In filling out Data Sheet 2, you need to consider the reverse situation. What address
terms do the people who appear in Data Sheet 1 use to you? So you need to record
the address terms that one female in the age group 10-15 would use to you, and the
terms that one male in the age group 10-15 would use to you, and so on.
You should record data for the same people in both data sheets, i.e. the address
terms that you use for someone in Data Sheet 1, and then the address terms that the
same people use for you in Data Sheet 2.
3. Non-typical usages
A central component of this case study is the collection of data on situations where
address terms are used in a non-typical manner. Your consideration should include
two types of non-typical usage. One is in situations where a person would use a
particular address term and you think that usage would be odd. For example, if your
mother has a nickname for you based on your childhood pronunciation of your own
name, it might be considered odd for her to use this name when in the presence of
your teacher. Consider instances both of your own usage (in what situations would
you consider it odd to use a particular address term for someone else?) and other
people’s usage (in what situations would you consider it odd if that person used a
particular address term for you?) The second is in situations where a person would
not use a particular address term. Again, this could be your own usage as well as
other people’s usage.
Part B – Analysis (1,500 words)
The goal of your analysis is to find patterns in your data which say something about
how people use different kinds of address terms to signal different kinds of social
relationships. The analysis needs to include the following steps:
1. Give a structural analysis of the variation found in your data. Which categories of
address term do you find? (E.g. formal title, first name, last name, nickname). For
address terms which are not the person’s actual name or title, describe how the term
has been created, using linguistic terminology where appropriate. For example,
‘Mike’ is formed from ‘Michael’ by deleting the final syllable. (Remember to
distinguish between pronunciation and spelling! Deleting the final syllable from
[mekl] gives [mek], so this is an appropriate description of the change, even
though there are other differences in the spelling).
2. Describe how the structural variation correlates with the social variables in your
data. By which social groups, and in which social situations, are the different types of
address terms used? You will want to think about the following social differences:
LING1111 Introduction to Linguistics (1) case study

Partners (wives, husbands etc) vs Close friends vs Acquaintances
Older people vs Younger people
Informal situations vs Formal situations
Females vs Males
Relations vs Unrelated people
These differences could be said to define a scale of social closeness vs social
distance – that is, the social relationship between two people may depend on one or
more of these factors. In your analysis, you want to say something about how
different types of social relationships are signalled by the use of different kinds of
address terms.
Provide generalisations based on your data that show how different address terms
are used differently by different groups of people. Some examples of possible
generalisations:
1. ‘Among female addressees, it was only those above the age of 26 that I
used a formal address title to (e.g. Dr Williams)’
2. ‘People 26 and older did not address me by my nickname’
3. ‘With one exception, I did not address people 26 and younger by their
surnames’
4. ‘More females than males addressed me by my first name, and no
females used a formal title to me.’
5. ‘X is the only one of my friends who addresses me by my surname, but
unlike my other friends, I rarely see him outside our hockey club.’

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